||Bilateral cryoneurolysis of pudendal and sciatic nerves
||Image-guided neurolysis may be used to treat refractory pain as an alternative to amputation.
||Neurolytic lumbar sympathetic block
||Lumbar sympathetic blockade should be considered for pain management.
||Ultrasound-guided dorsal penile nerve block with 4% phenol
||ESRD, diabetes, heart failure
||US-guided phenol nerve blocks may be used for long-term targeted neurolysis to manage refractory pain.
||Subcutaneous ketamine infusion (500 mg), sufentanil (900 mcg)
||ESRD, obesity, hypertension, anxiety
||An opioid, benzodiazepine, and ketamine combination was most successful in pain control. In the choice of an opioid, renal failure status should be considered.
||Subcutaneous fentanyl infusion (300 mcg) with 40 mcg boluses for breakthrough pain, midazolam (2.5 mg)
||ESRD, bipolar affective disorder, Parkinson disease, diabetes, obesity, ischemic heart disease
||Subcutaneous infusion of sufentanil (80 mcg), midazolam (15 mg), haloperidol (2.5 mg), subcutaneous ketamine (50 mg)
||ESRD, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, alcohol dependence
||Morphine and epidural nerve block
||Morphine and epidural nerve block were unsuccessful in controlling pain. Early diagnosis and avoidance of precipitating factors, such as corticosteroids, are important.